Agile Interview Questions

1. What is Agile?
Agile is a practice or approach that QA team follow in the dynamic environment where requirements keep changing as per the customers need. This phase is also done parallelly with development activities.

2. What are the difference between Agile and Waterfall model?
Agile testing is gone parallel to the development phase whereas in the waterfall model testing is done at the end of the development. Also, agile testing is done on small features whereas in the waterfall model testing is done on the whole application.

3. What are the roles in Scrum?
There are mainly three roles:
Project Owner – Project owner is one who has the responsibility of managing product backlog. He coordinates with end users and customers and provides a proper requirement to the team to build the proper product.
Scrum Master – Scrum master is one who works with the scrum team to make sure each sprint gets complete on time. He ensures proper workflow to the team.
Scrum Team – Each member of the team should be self-organized, dedicated and responsible for the high quality of the work.

4. What is the duration of scrum sprint?
Scrum sprint cycle depends on the project size as well as on the team size. Normally any sprint takes 3 to 4 weeks to complete.

5. What is the Daily Stand-up?
Daily Stand-up or Daily Scrum Meeting is a short everyday meeting. In this meeting, the team discusses the work progress like how much tasks has been done and what steps we need to perform to complete the tasks. This meeting is basically making the agile teams more productive and efficient.

6. What is Scrumban?
It is a software development approach which is a combination of scrum and kanban. Scrumban is used for maintaining the projects in which there are frequent changes. It gives the structure or board to the scrum with the flexibility and visualization of Kanban which makes it an adaptable approach for workflow management.

7. What is Scrum and Sprint?
Scrum which is a specific agile method or Incremental Development process uses the term Sprint for its iterations(one development cycle) in Scrum is called a Sprint. In other words, A sprint, in Agile software development, is a period of time during which a specific task has to be completed and made ready for review.

8. What is the Sprint Planning Meeting?
Sprint Planning Meeting is a collaborative effort which involves all the scrum or agile team members like product owner, scrum master and the whole scrum team. The role and responsibility of these team members like:
Product Owner – One who clarifies the details of the product backlog items and their respective acceptance criteria.
Scrum Master – One who facilitates the meeting with scrum team to make sure each sprint gets complete on time.
Scrum Team – Each member of the team should be self-organized, dedicated and responsible for the high quality of the work.

9. What is the difference between Scrum and Agile?
Scrum and Agile are terms used in Project Management.

Scrum is a combination of many iterative and incremental agile software development methods. In Scrum methodology, a Sprint is the basic unit of development. Each Sprint starts with a planning meeting, where the tasks for the sprint are identified and an estimated time for the sprint goal is made. A Sprint ends with a review or retrospective meeting where the progress of the tasks is reviewed.

In the Agile methods, each iteration involves a team working through a full software development cycle, including planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, unit testing, and acceptance testing when a working product is demonstrated to business analyst stakeholders. So if in a Scrum Sprint you perform all the software development phases (from requirement analysis to acceptance testing), and in my opinion, you should, you can say Scrum Sprints correspond to Agile Iterations.

10. What is the difference between Epic, User stories & Tasks?
An epic holds a large body of tasks or work. It is basically a large user story that can be broken down into a number of smaller stories. It may take several sprints to complete an epic. Epics are usually defined during initial product setup and divided into stories in the form of the product backlog.

A story is a kind of work that directly or indirectly affects our end-user experience. These are usually created throughout product development. Stories are focused towards the Product Owner and business users Task is a decomposed parts of the story that gets into like how the story will be completed.

Tasks are usually defined by the people and kind of work that might be purely technical, deployments, optimization, code level, configurations, etc. Tasks are focused on the development team.

11. What is Test Driven Development (TDD)?
Test-driven development (TDD), is a progressive approach to development which combines test-first development where you write a test before you write just enough production code to complete that test. Next, we execute the test and based on requirements we refactor the code.

12. What is velocity?
Velocity is a metric or progress chart that is calculated by the addition of all efforts estimates associated with user stories completed in an iteration. It predicts how much work Agile can complete in a sprint and how much time will require to complete a project. For example, if capacity is measured as a percentage of 40 hours weeks then it calculated story points * team capacity and if capacity is measured in man hours then it calculated as story points/team capacity.

13. What is an iterative and incremental development?
Iterative Development: In this development, software is developed and delivered to the customer and based on the feedback again developed in release and sprints. Say in Release 1 software is developed in 5 sprints and delivered to a customer. Now the customer wants some changes, then the development team plan for 2nd release which can be completed in some sprints and so on.
Incremental Development: Software is development in parts or increments. In each increment, a portion of the complete requirement is delivered.

14. What is zero sprint?
It is basically a pre-step to the first sprint. Here we consider the things like setting up the development environment, preparing backlog and sprint tasks structure on board, etc needs to be done before starting of the first sprint and can be known as zero sprints.

15. What is a spike?
Sometimes we stuck in a story due to too large or very complex. So in this case team can’t estimate the story. Also we unsure if we are able to complete the story due to some potential blocker. In this case, we might want to build a functional or technical experiment or approach to figure it out. These are called spikes. To provide the solution of these problems “Spikes” are created.

16. What is the story point in a scrum?
The way of measurement that is used to estimate the total effort which is needed to complete or do a particular work or implementing a backlog is referred to a story point in the scrum.

17. What is Burn-up and Burn-down chart?
Burn-up and Burn-down charts are used to keep track of the progress of the project.
Burn-up charts represent how much work has been done in any project. Whereas Burn-down chart represents the remaining work in a project.

18. What is the retrospective meeting?
Sprint retrospective meeting is the ending part of the sprint. It is probably done after the review meeting of a sprint and before the next sprint is started. The whole teams along with scrum master participate in it and discuss the most recent sprint or milestone and identify areas that need to be improved and also praise the team works collaboratively.

19. What is an impediment in the scrum? Give example.?
An impediment is anything like a blocker that is slowing down the process of the team. It can be any kind of issues or high probability risks. Some example of impediments:

  • Technical issues
  • Operational issues
  • Organizational issues
  • Process issues
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Physical hardware limitation
  • Business or customer issues
  • Etc

20. What is scrum of scrums?
Scrum of scrums is used to scale the daily stand-up meeting when multiple teams are involved. Its main motive is to support agile teams in collaborating and coordinating their work with other team members. Here one member from each team designated as ‘ambassador’ participate in daily meeting with ambassadors from other teams.

21. What is scrum poker or planning poker?
Planning poker, is also known as Scrum poker, is a consensus-based technique for estimating the effort development goals in software development cycle. In planning poker, members of the group make estimates by playing numbered cards face-down on the table, instead of speaking them aloud. The cards are revealed, and the estimates are then discussed.
Each estimator holds a deck of planning poker cards with values like 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, and 21, which is the sequence we recommend. If all estimators selected the same value, that becomes the estimate. If not, the estimators discuss their estimates. The high and low estimators should especially share their reasons. After further discussion, each estimator reselects an estimate card, and all cards are again revealed at the same time.

22. What are the principles of agile?
Below are 12 principles that are based on the Agile Manifesto:

  1. Customer satisfaction by early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even in late development.
  3. Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months).
  4. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers.
  5. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted.
  6. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (co-location).
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  8. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace.
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design.
  10. Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential.
  11. Best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
  12. Regularly, the team reflects on how to become more effective, and adjusts accordingly.

23. What are product backlog and sprint backlog?
A product backlog is maintained by the project owner which contains every feature and requirement of the product. Whereas Sprint backlog is basically a subset of product backlog which contains features and requirements related to that particular sprint only.

24. What is the task board?
In Scrum, the task board is a visual display of the progress of the Scrum team during a sprint. It shows data in the form of the snapshot of the current sprint backlog allowing everyone to see which tasks remain to be started, which are in progress and which are done.